Software testing is recognized to be the activity for checking if the original results match the specific expected results. It is considered to be an integral part of software testing and is useful in determining whether the developed software is free from errors, bugs, and defects. It primarily involves the execution of the specific software system or component for the evaluation of different properties of interest. Software testing plays a vital role in the determination if missing requirements, and gaps in the system. It is possible to achieve the same manually or with the aid of automated tools.

Firstly we need to know the importance of Software Testing. As there are many chances that the final code some functionality errors. 

Methods of software testing

There are different methods of software testing which are inclusive of black-box testing, white-box testing, and grey-box testing.

Black-Box Testing

To conduct this method of testing, you do not need any prior knowledge of the interior working system of the software. The tester is not familiar to the system architecture of the software and does not have any access to the source code. During the performance of the black box testing, the tester will be interacting with the user interface of the system by offering inputs and then examining the outputs, without being aware of where and how the inputs are being worked on.

Pros

This method of software testing is suitable and effective for segments of large code.

  • You do not need any access to the code.
  • It separates the perspective of the user from the perspective of the developer via the visibly defined roles.
  • With this software testing procedure, moderately skilled testers of large numbers can test the system without any knowledge of programming language, implementation of the operating systems.

Cons

  • This software testing method involves limited coverage as an only specific number of test scenarios are performed here.
  • It is not that effective as the tester does not have in-depth knowledge about the application.
  • It is challenging to design the test cases
  • This kind of software testing involves blind coverage as the tester is not capable of targeting those error-prone areas or code segments.

White-box testing

It is considered to be the investigation of the structure as well as the internal logic of the code in detail. It is also referred to as open box testing or glass testing. For the performance of the white box testing on the application, it is essential for the testing to gain knowledge about the internal workings of the code. The tester requires having a look of the source code with an eye to finding which chunk or unit of the code acts inappropriately.

Pros

  • This method of software testing is effective to optimize the code.
  • As the tester has immense knowledge of the source code, it is easier for finding what kind of data is useful to test the software efficiently.
  • With the aid of this software method, it is possible to remove the additional lines of code which can lead to hidden defects.
  • As the tester is aware of the code, it is possible to procure maximum coverage at the time of writing the test scenarios.

Cons

  • A highly skilled tester is required for performing this type of testing. This eventually adds to the cost of software development.
  • Maintenance of white-box testing is not a walk in the park as it requires unique tools such as debugging tools and code analyzers. 
  • At times, it is not possible to take a close look at every aspect for finding out the specific errors which may lead to issues and thus a wide array of paths may be left untested.

Grey box testing

It is another method of software testing in which the application is tested and the tester has limited knowledge of the different aspects of the internal functioning of the application. In software testing, as you gain in-depth knowledge of the phrase, it is possible to carry a lot of weight at the time of testing the app. The mastering of the domain of the system offers an edge to the tester over an individual with lesser knowledge in the domain. Whereas in black-box testing, the tester is known to test the user interface of the application only, in the arena of grey-box testing, the tester gets access to design the database and documents. With this knowledge, it is possible for the tester to prepare test scenarios as well as test data at the time of preparing the test plan.

Pros

  • This method of software testing is known to bestow the advantages of white box testing and black box testing combined.
  • Testers performing grey box testing do not depend on the source code. They are dependent on functional specifications and interface definition.
  • A grey box tester is capable of designing test scenarios correctly, primarily during data type handling and communication protocols.
  • This method of software testing is accomplished from the user point of view, and not from the designer point of view.

Cons

  • As it is not possible to get access to the source code, the capabilities of going over the test coverage and code are limited.
  • There are chances of redundancy as the software designer has run a specific test-case already.
  • It is unrealistic to test each possible input stream as it may take ample time. Hence, there are high chances that a bunch of program paths may be left untested.

The ultimate objective of software testing methods during the development phase is ensuring that the software may operate in a plethora of cross different platforms and environments effectively. It can be broken down between the nonfunctional and functional testing typically. The functional testing is inclusive of testing the specific software against the requirements of the business. It is known to incorporate every test type for ensuring that every part of the software behaves as expected with the use of uses cases, as offered by the business analyst or design team.